1672-1803 Muratori, Alfieri and Genovesi ignite the fire of revolution.

1796   Milan is occupied by the French under French General Napoleon Bonaparte who founds the Cispadane Republic (including Modena, Bologna, and Ferrara).

1797  Pope submits to Bonaparte; Uprisings against French in Verona; French enter Venice;  Cisalpine Republic established in Lombardy; Venice given to Austria.

1798   Roman Republic declared; Ferdinand IV enters Rome (later retaken by French); Abdication of Charles Emmanuel IV of Savoy.

1799   French occupation of Naples; Milan taken by Russians; Austrians enter Turin; Naples capitulates to Bourbons.

1801   Napoleon occupies Milan; Kingdom of Etruria founded by Napoleon in Tuscany; Treaty of Florence between France and Naples.

1802   Cisalpine Republic called Italian Republic; France annexes Piedmont.


1805   Napoleon crowns himself King of Italy; Ligurian Republic annexed to France; also Parma and Piacenza.

1806   Venetia annexed to Kingdom of Italy; Joseph Bonaparte declared King of the Two Sicilies.

1808   Joachim Murat becomes King of Naples; Papal States partly annexed to Kingdom of Italy.

1809   Napoleon annexes Rome and Papal States to French empire.

1814   Napoleon defeated; banished to Elba.

1820   Revolt in Naples.

1821   Revolt in Piedmont.

1831   Revolution in the Papal States; King Charles Albert becomes King of Sardinia; "Young Italy" founded by Mazzini.

1845   Pius IX becomes Pope.

1848   Uprisings in Palermo; Constitutional edict in Naples; Constitutional monarchy proclaimed in Piedmont;  Constitution granted in Rome, Republic proclaimed with Mazzini as head. Successful revolution in Milan; Venice proclaimed a Republic; Charles Albert [Piedmont and Sardinia] invades Lombardy;  Tuscan forces invade Lombardy; Naples constitution denied; Union of Venetia and Piedmont declared, soon overthrown; Battle of Custozza, Charles Albert defeated.

1849   Charles Albert abdicates in favor of Victor Emmanuel II; Sicilian revolution crushed by Naples; Austrians take Florence; Venice surrenders to Austria.

1850   Cavour becomes Prime Minister in Sardinia-Piedmonte.

1852   Napoleon III becomes emperor of France.

1858   Meeting of Cavour and Napoleon III.

1859   War between Austria and Sardinia Piedmont; Austria defeated by Piemontese and French; Sardinia gains Lombardy.

1860   Tuscany and Emilia declare for union with Sardinia-Piedmonte; Revolution in Sicily, Garibaldi lands and is victorious; invades Italy and gains victory; enters Naples Piemontese army under Victor Emmanuel take over from Garibaldi; Marche and Umbria vote for annexation to Piedmonte.

1861   Sicily and Naples vote to join Kingdom of Italy; Kingdom of Italy proclaimed.

1866   Italy joins Prussia in War against Austria; gains Venetia;

1870   Italian troops occupy Rome when French abandon city;

1871 (July)   Rome made Capital of Kingdom

TIME LINE
The Italian UnificationPowerPoint

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